Custom Antibodies & Immunization
BioGenes Berlin

BioGenes has been providing routine and highly sophisticated custom antibody development solutions for industry and research since 1992. Our track record comprises thousands of demanding projects for the most difficult targets.

We have generated monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies targeting proteins, peptides, small molecules, modified peptides, drug substances and antibodies itself (anti-idiotypic antibodies).

We are also experts in generating antibodies against anti-drug-conjugates (ADCs).

In addition, BioGenes offers non-clinical immunization studies in animals including but not limited to mice, rats or rabbits for several applications (non-GLP). 

Your Customized Solution

Our approach to project success is rooted in collaboration and precision. Our experts work closely with you to understand your specific requirements and project objectives. Through this partnership, we develop a tailored project plan that ensures a seamless and targeted implementation process.

One of our core strengths lies in the flexibility of our processes. Our protocols and immunization schemes are not set in stone. Instead, they are adjustable to align precisely with your project's unique demands. Additionally, our diverse range of available host species and the flexibility to modify work phases further underscore our commitment to tailoring our approach to your objectives.

Modification of Antibodies

As a one-stop-provider and expert, BioGenes also offers several services for antibody modification. From fragmentation to cleavage to labeling, our scientists will be able to realize desired modifications for you.

Antigen Requirements

In the following you will find our preferred specifications for suitable buffer conditions and additives for antigens supplied for monoclonal and polyclonal antibody development as well as our operating time for incoming goods/antigens.

Peptide Synthesis

Custom synthesis of standard and challenging or modified peptides for antibody development in cooperation with our partner. 


  • Extensive scientific consultation prior to the project’s start
  • Customized project proposals
  • All results and project deliveries (clones, cryo cultures, antisera, antibodies etc.) as well as intellectual properties related to the used antigens are owned solely by the customer
  • Full flexibility of work flow: modify, repeat or stop work packages, depending on the results and customer's specific requests
  • High reliability and strict time-lines: Complete project is being carried out in-house


If you need more information, a specific offer 
or want to talk to an expert


Are polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies more suitable?

The choice between polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies depends on the specific requirements and goals of the research or application. Both types have their advantages and disadvantages, and the suitability of each depends on factors such as the intended use, target characteristics, and project objectives. Here are some considerations for both:

Monoclonal Antibodies:

  1. Specificity: Monoclonal antibodies are highly specific, as they are produced by a single clone of B cells. This can be advantageous when precise targeting of a particular epitope is crucial.
  2. Consistency: Monoclonal antibodies provide consistent results batch after batch, making them ideal for applications where reproducibility is essential.
  3. Hybridoma Technology: Monoclonal antibodies are typically generated using hybridoma technology, involving the fusion of a specific B cell with a myeloma cell. This process can be time-consuming and requires expertise.


Polyclonal Antibodies:

  1. Sensitivity: Polyclonal antibodies recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen, enhancing sensitivity. They can detect various conformations or modifications of the target.
  2. Production Time: Polyclonal antibodies can be produced more quickly than monoclonal antibodies, which is beneficial when a rapid immune response is needed.
  3. Adaptability: Polyclonal antibodies are often more adaptable to different sample types and conditions, making them suitable for diverse applications.


Factors Influencing the Choice:

  1. Application: Consider the specific application, such as immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, or diagnostic assays. Some applications may benefit more from the specificity of monoclonals, while others may require the versatility of polyclonal antibodies.
  2. Target Characteristics: The nature of the target antigen, its abundance, and structural features can influence the choice. Monoclonals are preferred for well-defined targets, while polyclonal antibodies may be more suitable for complex or variable antigens.
  3. Budget and Resources: The cost and resources associated with antibody production can impact the decision. Monoclonal antibody development can be more resource-intensive and expensive.

Where are the animals located?

The animals used for our research projects are housed in certified facilities in Germany. These facilities adhere to ethical and legal standards to ensure the well-being of the animals.

Who owns the results?

All results and project deliveries (clones, cryo cultures, antisera, antibodies etc.) as well as intellectual properties related to the used antigens are owned solely by the customer.

Is confidentiality guaranteed throughout the development process?

BioGenes places a high emphasis on confidentiality. All project details and results are treated with utmost confidentiality, and agreements can be established to ensure data protection.

How can antibodies be further modified or processed to enhance their properties for specific applications?

Antibodies can undergo various modifications to enhance their properties or tailor them for specific applications. Some common modifications include:

1. Fragmentation:

  • Fab Fragments: F(ab’) is a monovalent fragment consisting of a single light chain homodimer, which is obtained by pepsin digestion of IgG, followed by reduction of the light chain disulfide bond. Generated by cleaving antibodies with Papain at pH 7.0, the monovalent Fab fragments retain antigen-binding capabilities.
  • F(ab')2 Fragments: F(ab’)2 is a fragment of IgG that is prepared by pepsin digestion of IgG. F(ab’)2 fragment is the disulfide-linked heterodimer of the two light chain dimers, so it retains bivalent epitope binding like whole IgG, but because it lacks the heavy chains, it is smaller in size (~110 kDa compared to 150 kDa for whole IgG. The Fc fragment is highly degraded and can be separated from F(ab)2 by dialysis or gel filtration, respectively. These retain the bivalent nature of intact antibodies, suitable for certain assays.
  • F(ab’)2 and F(ab’) fragments do not bind to immunoglobulin receptors on cells, which can be useful for achieving specific staining of the primary antibody target. The fragments also will not bind Protein A or Protein G.

2. Pair Search: Antibodies will be biotinylated and used for the search of antibody pairs (capture and detector) by testing all antibodies against each other (checker-board titration). 

3. Conjugation: 

  • Fluorescent Dyes: Conjugating antibodies with fluorescent dyes allows for visualization in techniques such as immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.
  • Enzymes: Enzyme-linked antibodies (e.g., HRP or alkaline phosphatase) enable detection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
  • Biotin Conjugation: Addition of biotin for subsequent detection or purification using streptavidin.
  • Gold labelling: Production of colloid conjugates with defined particle size
  • Immobilization of antibodies on latex of magnetic beads with defined particle size

4. Hybridoma Sequencing: Determining the nucleotide sequence is crucial for understanding their structure and function.

Do you adhere to specific animal welfare standards?

BioGenes ensures that all services where work is carried out with and on animals meet specific animal welfare regulation, including but not limited to the following:

  1. German Guidelines: Tierschutzgesetz (TierSchG), engl. Animal Welfare Act of 18th May 2006 (BGBl. I S. 1206), last update from 20th December 2022; Tierschutz-Versuchstierverordnung (TierSchVersV), engl. Animal Welfare Ordinance on Experimental Animals of 01 August 2013 (BGBl. I S. 3125), last update from 11th August 2021
  2. European Union Guidelines: EU Directive 2010/63 of 09th November 2010 and the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes of 18th March 1986

Moreover, BioGenes has been successfully audited by Animal Welfare Officers of Merck Group, a member of Interpharma, with the scope to the animal welfare standards "ETS123" and the "US ILAR guide".


Keep me updated